LIGHTGRID - Lichtnetz - REDDELUZ

lightgrid, St-Germain, gridwork, 7-Ray, Violet Ray, net-of-light

Four new elements added to periodic table

The new elements – elements 113, 115, 117 and 118 – complete the periodic table’s seventh row and make science textbooks around the world instantly out-of-date.

The completed seventh row in the periodic table. Image credit: Wikimedia Commons

The completed seventh row in the periodic table. Image credit: Wikimedia Commons

By David HindeAustralian National University

In an event likely never to be repeated, four new superheavy elements were last weeksimultaneously added to the periodic table. To add four in one go is quite an achievement but the race to find more is ongoing.

Back in 2012, the International Unions of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) tasked five independent scientists to assess claims made for the discovery of elements 113, 115, 117 and 118. The measurements had been made at Nuclear Physics Accelerator laboratories in Russia (Dubna) and Japan (RIKEN) between 2004 and 2012.

Late last year, on December 30, 2015, IUPAC announced that claims for the discovery of all four new elements had been accepted.

This completes the seventh row of the periodic table, and means that all elements between hydrogen (having only one proton in its nucleus) and element 118 (having 118 protons) are now officially discovered.

After the excitement of the discovery, the scientists now have the naming rights. The Japanese team will suggest the name for element 113. The joint Russian/US teams will make suggestions for elements 115, 117 and 118. These names will be assessed by IUPAC, and once approved, will become the new names that scientists and students will have to remember.

Until their discovery and naming, all superheavy elements (up to 999!) have been assigned temporary names by the IUPAC. Element 113 is known as ununtrium (Uut), 115 is ununpentium (Uup), 117 is ununseptium (Uus) and 118 ununoctium (Uuo). These names are not actually used by physicists, who instead refer to them as “element 118”, for example.

The superheavy elements

Elements heavier than Rutherfordium (element 104) are referred to as superheavy. They are not found in nature, because they undergo radioactive decay to lighter elements.

Those superheavy nuclei that have been created artificially have decay lifetimes between nanoseconds and minutes. But longer-lived (more neutron-rich) superheavy nuclei are expected to be situated at the centre of the so-called “island of stability”, a place where neutron-rich nuclei with extremely long half-lives should exist.

Currently, the isotopes of new elements that have been discovered are on the “shore” of this island, since we cannot yet reach the centre.


How were these new elements created on Earth?

Atoms of superheavy elements are made by nuclear fusion. Imagine touching two droplets of water – they will “snap together” because of surface tension to form a combined larger droplet.

The problem in the fusion of heavy nuclei is the large numbers of protons in both nuclei. This creates an intense repulsive electric field. A heavy-ion accelerator must be used to overcome this repulsion, by colliding the two nuclei and allowing the nuclear surfaces to touch.

This is not sufficient, as the two touching spheroidal nuclei must change their shape to form a compact single droplet of nuclear matter – the superheavy nucleus.

It turns out that this only happens in a few “lucky” collisions, as few as one in a million.

There is yet another hurdle; the superheavy nucleus is very likely to decay almost immediately by fission. Again, as few as one in a million survives to become a superheavy atom, identified by its unique radioactive decay.

The process of superheavy element creation and identification thus requires large-scale accelerator facilities, sophisticated magnetic separators, efficient detectors and time.

Finding the three atoms of element 113 in Japan took 10 years, and that was after the experimental equipment had been developed.

The payback from the discovery of these new elements comes in improving models of the atomic nucleus (with applications in nuclear medicine and in element formation in the universe) and testing our understanding of atomic relativistic effects (of increasing importance in the chemical properties of the heavy elements). It also helps in improving our understanding of complex and irreversible interactions of quantum systems in general.

The race to make more elements

The race is now on to produce elements 119 and 120. The projectile nucleus Calcium-48 (Ca-48) – successfully used to form the newly accepted elements – has too few protons, and no target nuclei with more protons are currently available. The question is, which heavier projectile nucleus is the best to use.

To investigate this, the leader and team members of the German superheavy element research group, based in Darmstadt and Mainz, recently travelled to the Australian National University.

They made use of unique ANU experimental capabilities, supported by the Australian Government’s NCRIS program, to measure fission characteristics for several nuclear reactions forming element 120. The results will guide future experiments in Germany to form the new superheavy elements.

It seems certain that by using similar nuclear fusion reactions, proceeding beyond element 118 will be more difficult than reaching it. But that was the feeling after the discovery of element 112, first observed in 1996. And yet a new approach using Ca-48 projectiles allowed another six elements to be discovered.

Nuclear physicists are already exploring different types of nuclear reaction to produce superheavies, and some promising results have already been achieved. Nevertheless, it would need a huge breakthrough to see four new nuclei added to the periodic table at once, as we have just seen.

Enjoying EarthSky? Sign up for our free daily newsletter today!

Views: 98

Replies to This Discussion

Dear Sonja,

I could understand this message but this is the Research and I am not with it much...

But your Message has given some information what I was not knowing the least...

Thanks for this message...

Yeah .- I find it most interesting that the missing links are being found, the blanks are being filled ... science is nothing static - it is evolving together with spirituality!

Thank you for your presence, dear Sohini,

Sonja MYriel

RSS

Instinct CRYSTAL GRIDS

Help us to anchor the energy of the New Age on Earth. Get inspired and set up a grid with the intention to help HEAL Mother Earth and all Her Beings from the wounds of the past and WEAVE a new net of living LIGHT all around the planet to help all life forms evolve into Unity Consciousness.

 

Ascension is not about leaving the world - it is about bringing HEAVEN down to EARTH!

 

We are the living BRIDGE between the worlds and dimensions, between HEAVEN AND EARTH. We are free to move in TIME and SPACE when we enter the SACRED SPACE of the Divine Chamber of the HEART  where the ThreeFold Flame resides and the god given Divine Blueprint is waiting to be downloaded into our earth bodies.

 

The TIME to ACTIVATE our Light Body is NOW.

 

Love Light BLESSINGS,

 

Sonja Myriel RAouine

"About the Use of the Violet Flame" 

Excerpt:

I have to tell you that when you as a conscious disciple manage the Violet Flame, a parallel activity of the Violet Flame is initiated internally. This results in the vibrational awakening of your chakras. Therefore, each time when you use the gift of the Violet Flame you are asked not only to focalize your attention on what you want to transmute but also on the internal activity which takes place within yourself.

One of the consequences of the continual use of the Violet Flame is the accelerated awakening of all your chakras, you will, step by step, wake up in a different world from where you live now.

https://lightgrid.ning.com/group/lightgrid/forum/topics/lightgrid-tw...

 

Lightgrid CONNEXION Groups

This is the space for you to ORGANISE your personal connexion group, to look for likeminded people, to introduce yourSELF and say what you would like to contribute to the every expanding NET OF LIGHT around the world.

COMING TOGETHER

You have received clear guidance on a project,type of meditation, course of action to take? You are WELCOME to share here so we can start DREAMING and thus CREATING together!

Blog Posts

YOU ARE REBIRTHING YOURSELVES IN EVERY MOMENT INTO A NEW VERSION

Posted by Ms Tercy Lonan on December 5, 2019 at 9:11am 0 Comments

YOU ARE REBIRTHING YOURSELVES IN EVERY MOMENT INTO A NEW VERSION:- It is also the reason why you receive so many upgrades and why you are requiring so much maintenance of your physical vehicles. You need to keep up with these energies that are…

Continue

ENERGY THAT YOUR OVERSOUL IS ALWAYS SENDING YOU

Posted by Ms Tercy Lonan on December 4, 2019 at 11:01am 0 Comments

ENERGY THAT YOUR OVERSOUL IS ALWAYS SENDING YOU:- You are bringing more of yourselves forward in this time of rapid awakening. This is a time where more and more people are waking up, and they need guides such as yourselves to help them through…

Continue

PRACTICE UNCONDITIONAL LOVE

Posted by Ms Tercy Lonan on December 3, 2019 at 10:55am 0 Comments

PRACTICE UNCONDITIONAL LOVE:- If you wanted to feel aligned with a purpose for your life, and you had no idea what you were supposed to do, your very next move that would serve you immensely would be to go within your heart space and feel the…

Continue

REMINDER OF WHAT IS SOURCE EXPERIENCES

Posted by Ms Tercy Lonan on December 2, 2019 at 4:17pm 0 Comments

REMINDER OF WHAT IS SOURCE EXPERIENCES:- You didn’t come here for the experience of what is easy. You come to planet Earth because you were up for the challenge. If you allow yourself to love someone who you may never even meet, you have allowed…

Continue

EXPERIENCE UNCONDITIONAL LOVE

Posted by Ms Tercy Lonan on November 30, 2019 at 9:00am 1 Comment

EXPERIENCE UNCONDITIONAL LOVE:- Being in love with someone who does not love you back is one of the ways that you get to experience unconditional love. Now, many of you feel that it is one of the worst experience that you can have to be…

Continue

Connected Heartfelt with Nature

Posted by Rhea Dopmeijer on November 29, 2019 at 11:55am 3 Comments

Connected Heartfelt with Nature is a gift

I was thinking about what to write to share my sensation or feelings today as well yesterday. The pictures I took were not at all I wanted to express during my walk in the early…

Continue

© 2019   Created by Myriel RAouine.   Powered by

Badges  |  Report an Issue  |  Terms of Service